FODDER

A pasture is high quality grass, suitable for ruminants, planted for grazing. Fodder is grass or other high quality leafy plants, suitable for ruminants which are managed by cutting and are then transported.

Pasture and fodder are important green feed for ruminant livestock. The livestock must be provided with quality and balanced nutrition for health, growth, breeding and production of meat and milk.

Current livestock producers face problems in providing quality and sufficient feed throughout the year. The shortage of green feed is significant during the dry and flooding season.

The traditional grass cutting methods by the roadsides, in the estates and others or leaving the livestock free to graze anywhere is no longer appropriate. As such, good quality pasture/fodder must be planted to provide sufficient food to your livestock in the effort to improve and enhance the production in terms of the quality and quantity. That will directly increase your income.

A desired pasture must have the following criteria.

  1. High yield at all times (Dry material content).
  2. High nutritional value, especially crude protein content.
  3. Has a good digestive value.
  4. Hardy – withstands adverse conditions such as drought or excessive grazing and also easily maintained.
  5. Fast growth and regeneration rate (after being cut and grazed).
  6. Higher amount of leaves compared to stalks.
  7. Easily mixed with other species especially legumes.
  8. Economical to be carried out.
  9. Delicious, favoured by the livestock.

PASTURA DAN FODER

 

JENIS PASTURA/FODER

Nama Biasa

Nama Saintifik

Pastura / Foder  
Rumput Signal Bracharia decumbans
Rumput Para Bracharia mutica
Rumput Kuda / Guinea Bracharia humidicola
Rumput Gajah / Napier Panicaum maximum
cv. Colonio, Hamil, Typica
Rumput Kazungula Setaria sphacelata
cv. kazungula
Rumput Slendida Setaria sphacelata
Var. splendida
Rumput MARDI Digit /
Pangola daun lebar
Digitaria setivalva
Kekacang :  
Centro Centrosema pubscens
Stylo Stylosanthes guyanensis
Puero / Kudzu Topika Pueraria phaseoloides
Calapo Calapogonium mucunoides
Petai Belalang / Ipil-ipil Leucaena leucocephala

The selection of pasture/fodder and legumes to be planted depends on:

The most important thing is that you must have an area of land for this purpose. The land can be either owned by you or abandoned lands such as road reserves, LLN and JPT or areas around the livestock shed, etc.   

Prior to land preparation works being carried out, the land must be cleared from any plants, tree trunks, wood stumps and others beforehand. Drainage should be made if the area is wet.

There are 3 stages of land preparation, which are:

i. Plowing ii. Harrowing/breaking iii. Spinning

This work should best be carried out at the beginning of the dry season and at each level must be done properly in gaining the suitable soil structure as well as improving its water holding for root development and further growth.            

Lime should only be applied if the acidity (pH) of the soil is low and if the legumes are planted together. The required soil pH value is between 5.0 – 7.0.

Consumption rate depends on the soil pH value analysed. Approximately 2-3 tonnes of lime/hectare or 1 tonne/acre will raise the pH value to 0.5. Liming is performed once the land is prepared or 2 weeks before planting.

Planting is best carried out early during the rainy season for effective germination and growth. Irrigation using irrigators and sprinklers also helps without being too dependent on rain.

There are 2 methods of planting:

The seeds can be sown by hand or by machines such as a ‘seedavator’. The general rate for grass seed is 3-6 kg/hectare and legume seed is 2-5 kg/hectare. In the pasture mix (grass and legume), the legume ratio should not exceed 40%.   

That is, using stem sections, trellis/stolon or sapling. This method is carried out on pastures that are flowerless or flowering but cannot germinate such as Napier. Sections can also be planted according to line either by pricking or lying. Sections can also be spread flat and spun into the soil by the passing of a rotovator. Planting using saplings are made when the seeds are unavailable and not of the creeper variety.    

It can be carried out a few days before flowering. This situation can be estimated when a small portion of grass on the plot starts flowering.

For ease of management, this can also be based on the resting period between each cutting/grazing, with an average of 4-5 weeks.

Fertilisation is essential in ensuring the yield and quality of pasture/fodder remains constantly high.

A general rate of real grass (not mixed with legume) is N:P:K = 60:30:30, which is 60 kg. Nitrogen/hectare : 30 kg. Phosphorus/ha : 30 kg. Potassium/ha.

If the area is a newly opened land, only phosphate fertilisers should be added to encourage root growth. The Triple Super Phosphate (TSP) fertiliser with a rate of 250 kg/ha is sufficient.

For legume plots or grass mixed with legume, the fertilisation rate is P : K = 30 : 30        

Here is a general managed fertilisation rate recommended for a number of managements:

Jenis tanaman dan
bentuk pengurusan
Kadar baja (kg/hektar/tahun)
Rumput tulin
- pengurusan secara ragutan
150 - 200 N
40 - 60 P
50-100 K
(326-345 Urea)
(199-298 TSP)
(100-200 MP)
Rumput tulin
- Pengurusan secara potong dan angkut
200 - 300 N
40 - 60 P
100 - 150 K
(435-652 Urea)
(199-248 TSP)
(200-300 MP)
Rumput bercampur kekacang
- Pengurusan secara ragutan
40 - 50 P
50 - 100 K
(199-248 TSP)
(100-200 MP)
Rumput becampur kekacang
- Pengurusan secara potong dan angkut
50 - 60 P
150 - 200 K
(248-298 TSP)
(300-400 MP)
Petai Belalang / Ipil-ipil 40 - 60 P
50 - 100 K
(199-298 TSP)
(100-200 MP)

Use of livestock manure and shed washing water is good and highly recommended.

If you have a perfect irrigation system, the rain factor will not cause problems in determining the fertilising period.

The average yielded dry materials of various pastures/fodder reaped every 6 weeks are as follows:

PURATA HASIL

Pastura / Foder Purata Hasil Bahan Kering
(tan / hektar / tahun)
Rumput Signal 25.5
Rumput Para 12.1
Rumput Guinea
- cv. Colonio
- cv. Hamil
 
18.6
17.6
Rumput Napier
- Local
- Uganda
 
23.2
16.9
Rumput Slendida 17.6
Rumput Kazungula 18.2

"MINAT DAN USAHA" adalah kunci untuk anda berjaya.

    1. Type of Livestock (Cattle, goat/sheep), topography and type of land.
    2. Usage (For grazing or reaping)
    • WHAT IS THE FIRST STEP IN CULTIVATING QUALITY PASTURES/FODDER?
    • HOW DOES ONE PREPARE THE LAND?
    • WHEN AND HOW FREQUENT MUST LIME BE DUSTED ON THE LAND?
    • WHEN IS THE MOST SUITABLE TIME TO CULTIVATE?
    • HOW DOES ONE CULTIVATE QUALITY PASTURE/FODDER?
    1. Using seeds
    2. Cultivation via cutting
    • HOW DOES ONE CULTIVATE USING SEEDS?
    • HOW DOES ONE CULTIVATE VIA CUTTING?
    • WHEN IS THE MOST SUITABLE TIME FOR REAPING OR GRAZING?
    • IS FERTILISER REQUIRED FOR MY PASTURE/FODDER PLOT?
    • WHAT ARE THE REQUIRED TYPES OF FERTILISER AND FERTILISATION METHOD?
    1. Organic fertiliser (obtained from livestock manure and compost)
    2. Chemical fertiliser (store-bought fertiliser processed chemically)
    1. Initial fertilisation which is a few days prior to or during cultivation
    2. Scheduled fertilisation which is fertilisation other than the initial fertilisation.
    • WHAT IS THE RATIO FOR INITIAL FERTILISATION?
    • WHAT IS THE RATIO FOR SCHEDULED FERTILISATION?
    • WHEN IS THE MOST SUITABLE TIME FOR FERTILISATION?
    1. After pastures/fodders are grazed/reaped.
    2. After the rain.
    • HOW MUCH PROFIT WILL I GAIN FROM QUALITY PASTURE/FODDER?
    • WHAT IS THE SECRET TO MAINTAINING A FERTILE PASTURE/FODDER?
  • HOW MUCH QUALITY PASTURE / FODDER SHOULD BE GIVEN TO EACH LIVESTOCK?

    • Every day, your livestock need fresh pasture/fodder at 10% of their body weight.
    • HOW TO REDUCE WASTE of FODDER?

      • Before being given to the livestock, the fodder can be cut into small pieces using a (forage chopper). You will notice an amazing differences.

 

 


Kapur hanya perlu ditabur apabila kemasaman (pH) tanah rendah dan apabiia kekacang ditanam bersama. Nilai pH tanah yang dikehendaki adalah diantara 5.0 - 7.0.

Kadar penggunaan bergantung kepada nilai pH tanah yang dianalisakan. 2-3 tan kapur/hektar atau 1 tan/ekar akan dapat menaikkan nilai pH sebanyak 0.5. Mengapur dibuat sebaik sahaja tanah siap disediakan atau 2 minggu sebelum menanam.

Menanam elok dilakukan pada awal musim hujan untuk percambahan dan pertumbuhan yang berkesan. Pengairan menggunakan 'irrigator' dan 'sprinkler' juga membantu tanpa terialu bergantung kepada hujan.

Ada 2 cara menanam:

  1. Menggunakaii biji benih.
  2. Menanam secara tampang.

Biji benih boleh ditabur dengan tangan atau menggunakan mesin seperti 'seedavator'. Kadar secara umum bagi biji benih rumput adalah 3-6 kg/hektar dan benih kekacang adalah 2-5 kg/hektar. Dalam pastura campuran (rumput dan kekacang), nisbah kekacang harusia tidak melebihi 40%.

laitu menggunakan keratan batang, jalaran/stolon atau anak. Cara ini dilalkukan ke atas pastura yang tidak berbunga atau berbunga tetapi tidak boleh bercambah seperti Napier. Keratan boleh ditanam mengikut barisan sama ada secara cucuk atau baring. Keratan boleh juga ditabur rata dan diputar ke dalam tanah dengan meialukan rotovator. Menanarn menggunakan anak dilakukan apabila biji benih tidak diperolehi dan bukan dari jenis menjalar.

la boleh dilakukan beberapa hari sebelum berbunga. Keadaan ini dapat dianggarkan iaitu apabiia sebahagian kecil dari rumput dipetak mula berbunga.

Untuk memudahkan pengurusan, boleh juga berdasarkan jangkamasa rehat di antara setiap pemotongan/ragutan, iaitu purata 4-5 minggu.

Pembajaan adalah sangat perlu bagi memastikan hasil dan mutu pastura/foder akan sentiasa tinggi.

Baja boleh dijeniskan kepada 2, iaitu:

  1. Baja asli (boleh diperolehi dari najis ternakan dan kompos).
  2. Baja kiinia (baja dagangan yang diproses secara kimia).

Jenis pembajaan juga terbahagi 2, iaitu:

  1. Pembajaan permulaan iaitu dibuat beberapa hari sebelum atau pada masa menanam.
  2. Pembajaan pengurusan iaitu pembajaan selain dari pembajaan permulaan.

Kadar secara umum bagi rumput tulin (tidak bercampur kekacang) ialah N:P:K = 60:30:30, iaitu 60 kg. Nitrogen/hektar : 30 kg. Phoshorus/ha : 30 kg. Kalium/ha.

Jika kawasan berkenaan adalah tanah baru dibuka, hanya baja phosphate perlu ditambah untuk menggalakkan pertumbuhan akar. Baja Triple Super Phosphate (TSP) dengan kadar 250 kg/ha. adalah mencukupi.

Untuk petak kekacang atau rumput bercampur kekacang, kadar pembajaan adalah P : K = 30 : 30


HOW TO PREPARE THE LAND?

Prior to land preparation, all plants, tree branches, logs and others must be cleared. Drainage is a necessity in wet areas.

There are 3 levels of land preparation, namely:

i. Ploughing ii. Brushing/Breaking iii. Rotating

These activities should be implemented at the beginning of the dry season and every level must be done properly to get the right soil structure as well as improving its water retention ability for root growth and development.

Jenis tanaman dan
bentuk pengurusan
Kadar baja (kg/hektar/tahun)
Rumput tulin
- pengurusan secara ragutan
150 - 200 N
40 - 60 P
50-100 K
(326-345 Urea)
(199-298 TSP)
(100-200 MP)
Rumput tulin
- Pengurusan secara potong dan angkut
200 - 300 N
40 - 60 P
100 - 150 K
(435-652 Urea)
(199-248 TSP)
(200-300 MP)
Rumput bercampur kekacang
- Pengurusan secara ragutan
40 - 50 P
50 - 100 K
(199-248 TSP)
(100-200 MP)
Rumput becampur kekacang
- Pengurusan secara potong dan angkut
50 - 60 P
150 - 200 K
(248-298 TSP)
(300-400 MP)
Petai Belalang / Ipil-ipil 40 - 60 P
50 - 100 K
(199-298 TSP)
(100-200 MP)

Use of livestock manure and shed’s wash water is good and highly recommended.

  1. After pasture/fodder is grazed / cut.
  2. After rain.

If you have a good irrigation system, rain is not a problem factor in determining the fertilising time.


BAGAIMANA CARA MENYEDIA TANAH ?

Sebelum kerja menyediakan tanah dijalankan, terlebih dahulu hendaklah dibersihkan dari sebarang tumbuhan, batang-batang pokok, tunggul-tunggul kayu dan sebagainya. Perparitan perlu dibuat sekiranya kawasan berair.

Ada 3 peringkat penyediaan tanah, iaitu:

i. Membajak ii. Menyikat/memecah iii. Memutar.

Kerja-kerja ini sebaiknya dibuat di awal musim kering dan di setiap peringkat mesti dilakukan dengan sempurna untuk mendapatkan struktur tanah yang sesuai di samping memperbaiki daya pemegangan air bagi perkembangan akar dan pertumbuhan seterusnya.

Pastura / Foder Purata Hasil Bahan Kering
(tan / hektar / tahun)
Rumput Signal 25.5
Rumput Para 12.1
Rumput Guinea
- cv. Colonio
- cv. Hamil
 
18.6
17.6
Rumput Napier
- Local
- Uganda
 
23.2
16.9
Rumput Slendida 17.6
Rumput Kazungula 18.2

"MINAT DAN USAHA" adalah kunci untuk anda berjaya.

Setiap hari, ternakan anda meffiedukan pastura/foder segar sebanyak 10% daripada berat badan mereka.

Sebelum diberi kepada ternakan, foder boleh dipotong-potong pendek menggunakan mesin mencincang foder (forage chopper). Anda akan lihat perbezaan yang menakjubkan.